5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) is a product of degradation of sugars. It is the major thermal decomposition product formed in aqueous glucose solutions during sterilization and upon storage in hot conditions. 5-HMF is a toxic substance that can cause many unwanted effects with possible mutagenic ones. The official (B.P) method of estimation of 5-HMF, in glucose containing intravenous infusions, is based on measuring the UV absorbance at 284 nm .This method is semi – quantitative.
In the present work, an HPLC method was adopted, modified and validated. Ascorbic acid was used as an internal standard for quantification of 5- HMF in different glucose containing solutions. The method was found to be liner (R2 = 0.999) in the concentration range (5- 25 μg /ml). The method was precise (RSD =1.15) and repeatable (SD = 0.27).
5-HMF was measured in different solutions using a quantative UV spectrophotometric method. The method was based on a calibration curve made by plotting absorbance agains different concentrations (1- 5μg /ml) of standard 5-HMF . The curve was linear with R= 0.9996.
Both the modified HPLC method and UV spectrophotometric method were used to determinethe content of 5-HMF in glucose 5% I.V infusion and glucose 5% + normal saline (from three different sources A, B and C), glucose 10 % infusion and glucose 50 % infusion. The results obtained by the two methods were compared. The concentration of 5-HMF was found to increase with time of storage and high initial concentration of glucose. Measurement of 5- HMF by HPLC method resulted in lower concentrations of the compound compared to those obtained by the UV method. Since the HPLC method a separation tool it is considered stability indicating method .there for it is more selective, precise and accurate. results obtained by HPLC are thus more reliable than those obtained by u v - spectrophotometry which can suffers, in this case, from interference by u v absorbing compounds other than 5-HMF.